SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.13 issue1 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Comportamento Organizacional e Gestão

Print version ISSN 0872-9662

Comport. Organ. Gest. vol.13 no.1 Lisboa Apr. 2007


Comportamento organizacional positivo e empreendedorismo: Uma influência mutuamente vantajosa 1


Patrícia Jardim da Palma 2

Miguel Pina e Cunha 3

Miguel Pereira Lopes 2



Faculdade de Economia 3

Universidade de Lisboa


Resumo. O comportamento organizacional positivo (COP) e o empreendedorismo têm procurado distinguir-se enquanto campos de referência no estudo das organizações. Contudo, ambas as áreas podem ainda beneficiar de melhorias ao nível conceptual, metodológico ou interventivo. Com base no estado da arte das duas áreas, o presente artigo procura estabelecer sinergias entre o COP e o empreendedorismo, de modo a contribuir para um desenvolvimento mais sustentado de ambas as disciplinas. Por influência da literatura sobre empreendedorismo, o COP pode beneficiar da introdução de uma maior preocupação com o impacto societal, de uma abordagem integrada e de uma perspectiva temporal no estudo das capacidades psicológicas. A investigação sobre empreendedorismo pode ficar mais favorecida ao evidenciar o uso de critérios de êxito mais claros, a preocupação com o rigor metodológico e a utilidade de uma visão desenvolvimentista dos empreendedores, todas elas características patentes nos estudos do COP.

Palavras-chave: comportamento organizacional positivo, empreendedorismo, sinergias.


Abstract. Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) and entrepreneurship are both making na effort to be aknowledged as reference fields in organizational researh. Stil, both these research disciplines can benefit from improvements at the conceptual, methodological and practice levels. Based on an analysis of the state of the art of these two fields, this article aims to present synergies between POB and entrepreneurship, in order to contribute to a more sustained development of each of these disciplines. POB might benefit from entepreneurship by introducing a concern with the societal impact, a more integrated approach, and a temporal perspective in the study of psychological capabilities. Enterpreneurship research can be enriched by evidencing POB’s use of clear success criteria, a concern with methodological reliability and a developmental view of entrepreneurs characteristics.

Key-words: positive organizational behavior; entrepreneurship; synergies



Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text only available in PDF format.




Aldrich, H. & Fiol, C. (1994). Fooles rush in? The institutional context of industry creation. Academy of Management Review, 19 (4), 645-670.         [ Links ]

Arbaugh, J. & Camp, S. (2002). Managing Growth Transitions: Theoretical Perspectives and Research Directions. In D. Sexton and H. Landström, The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Baldwin, J.& Picot, G. (1995). Employment Generation by Small Producers in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector. Small Business Economics, 7, 317-31.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Baron, R. (2002). OB and entrepreneurship: The reciprocal benefits of closer conceptual links. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 225-269.

Baron, R. (2004). The cognitive perspective: a valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship´s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 221-239.

Barringer, B. & Harrison, J. (2000). Walking a tightrope: creating value through interorganizational relationships. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 367-403.

Bartunek, J., Rynes, S. & Ireland, R. (2006). Academy of Management Journal Editors' Forum: What Makes Management Research Interesting, and Why Does it Matter? Academy of Management Journal, Vol 49 (1), 9-15.

Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), 779-801.

Begley, T. & Boyed, D. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and small businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2, 79-93.

Bing-Sheng, T. (2007). Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities through Strategic Alliances: A Resource-Based Approach toward Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management Studies, 44 (1), 119-142.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneural Ideas: The Case For Intention. Academy of Management Review, 13 (3), 442-453.

Boyatzis, R. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Brockhaus, R. (1980) Risk Taking Propensity of Entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Journal, 23 (3), 509-520.

Bruyat, C. & Julien, P. (2000). Definig the field of research in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 165-180.

Cameron, (2003). Organizational virtuousness and performance. In K.Cameron, J. Dutton & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, 48-65. San Francisco: Berrett-Koeller.

Carland, J., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. & Carland, J. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. The Academy of Management Review, 9 (2), 354-359.

Carree, M. & Thurik, A. (2003). The impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth. In D. Audretsch and Z. Acs, Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Eds, pp. 437-471. Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Chell, E., Haworth, J. & Brearley, S. (1991). The Entrepreneurial Personality: Concepts, Cases and Categories. London: Routledge.

Ciavarella, M. A., Bucholtz, A. K., Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R.D., & Stokes, G. S (2004). The Big Five and venture success: Is there a linkage? Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 465-483.

Cooper, A. & Folta, T. (2000). Entrepreneurship and high-technology clusters. In D. Sexton and H. Landström, The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Cunha, M. P., Rego, A., Cunha, R. C. & Cabral-Cardoso, C. (2006). Manual de Comportamento Organizacional e Gestão, 5ª Ed.. Lisboa: RH Editora.

Davidsson, P., Lindmark, L.& Olofsson, C. (1995). Small firms, business dynamics and differential development of economic well-being. Small Business Economics, 7, 301-315.

Davidsson, P., Lindmark, L. & Olofsson, C. (1998). Smallness, Newness, and Regional Development. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, 28, 57-71.

Davidsson, P. & Wilklund, J. (2000). Conceptual and Empirical Challenges in the Study of Firm Growth. In D. Sexton and H. Landström, The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship, pp. 26-43. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Delacroix, J. & Rao, M. (1993). Externalities and ecological theory: Unbundling density dependence. In J. Singh and J. Baum, Eds., Evolutionary dynamics of organizations, pp. 255-268. Oxford: Oxford U niversity Press.

Delmar, F. Davidsson, P. & Gartner, W. (2003). Arriving at the high-growth firm. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 189-216.

Drucker, P. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper and Row.

Duchesnau, D. & Gartner, W. (1990). A profile of new venture success and failure in an emerging industry. Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 297-312.

Eisenhardt, K. & Schoonhoven, C. (1990). Organizational Growth: Linking Founding Team, Strategy, Environment, and Growth among U.S. Semiconductor Ventures, 1978-1988. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 504-529.

Elsbach, K. & Sutton, R. (1992). Acquiring organizational legitimacy through illegitimate actions: a marriage of institutional and impression management theories. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 699-738.

Ensley, M., Pearson, A. & Amason, A. (2002). Understanding the dynamics of new venture top management teams: Cohesion, conflict and new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 365-386.

European Commission (2003). Observatory of European SMEs, nº 7.

Forlani, D. & Mullins, J. (2000). Perceived risks and choices in entrepreneur´s new venture decisions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 305-322.

Gaglio, C. M., & Katz, J. A. (2001). The Psychological Basis of Opportunity Identification: Entrepreneurial Alertness. Small Business Economics, 16 (2), 95-111.

Gartner, W. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10 (4), 696-706.

Gartner, (1988). "Who is an entrepreneur?" Is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12 (4), 11-32.

Gartner, W. (1989). Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14, 27-37.

Gartner, W. (2001). Is there an elephant in entrepreneurship? Blind assumptions in theory development. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25 (4), 27-40.

Gibb, A. (2002). In Pursuit of a New “Enterprise” and “Entrepreneurship” Paradigm for Learning: Creative Destruction, New Values, New Ways of Doing Things and New Combinations of Knowledge. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4 (3), 233-269.

Green, R., David, R. & Dent, M. (1996). The russian entrepreneur: A study of psychological characteristics. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior, 2 (1), 49-58.

Hannan, M. & Freeman, J. (1989). Organizational ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Herron, L. & Sapienza, H. (1992). The entrepreneur and the initiation of new venture launch activitie. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 17 (1), 49-55.

Hitt, M. & Ireland, R. (2000). The intersection of entrepreneurship and strategic management research. In D. Sexton and H. Landström, The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship, 45-63. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R., Camp, S. & Sexton, D. (2002). Strategic Entrepreneurship: Integrating Entrepreneurial and Strategic Management Perspectives. In M. Hitt, R. Ireland, S. Camp and D. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating A New Integrated Mindset, pp. 1-16. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Howell, R. (1972). Comparative profilles: entrepreneurs versus the hired executives: San Francisco península semiconductor industry. In A. Cooper and J. Komives, Eds., Technical Entrepreneurship: A Symposium. Milwaukee: Center for Venture Management, pp. 47-62.

Ireland, R., Hitt, M. & Simon, D. (2003). A model of strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and its dimensions. Journal of Management, 29 (6), 963-989.

Katz, D. & Kahn, R. (1978). The Social Psychology of Organizations, 2nd Ed. New York: Wiley.

Kenrick, D. & Funder, D. (1988). Profiting from controversy: Lessons from the person-situation debate. American Psychologist, 43 (1), 23-34.

Kerlinger, F. (1973). Foundations of Behavioral Research, 2nd Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Klein, K., Tosi, H. & Cannella, A. (1999). Multilevel theory building: Benefits, barriers, and new developments. Introduction to spetial topic fórum. Academy of Management Review, 24 (2), 243-248.

Klepper, S. & Graddy, E. (1990). The evolution of new industries and the determinants of market structure. RAND Journal of Economics, 21, 27-44.

Knight, F. (1971). Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Orig. public., 1921.

Lachman, R. (1980). Toward management of entrepreneurial tendencies. Managemnet International Review, 20 (2), 108-116.

Lopes, M. P. & Cunha, M. P. (2005). Mindpower: O Valor do Capital Psicológico Positivo. RH Magazine, 41, Nov/Dez: 30-41.

Low, M. & MacMillan, I. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challanges. Journal of Management, 35, 139-161.

Lumpkin, G. & Dess, G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21 (1), 135-178.

Luthans, F. (2002a). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological stregths. Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57-72.

Luthans, F. (2002b). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695-706.

Luthans, F., Avey, J., Avolio, B., Norman, S. & Combs, G. (2006). Psychological Capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387-393.

Luthans, F. & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic Leadership Development. In K.Cameron, J. Dutton & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, 241-258. San Francisco: Berrett-Koeller.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Walumba, F. & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: E xploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1 (2), 247-269.

Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33 (2), 143-160.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. & Avolio, B. (2007). Psychological Capital. Developing the Human Competitive Edge. New York: Oxford University Press.

Markman, G., Baron, R. & Balkin, D. (2005). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs' regretful thinking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26 (1), 1-19.

Mitchell, R., Smith, B., Seawright, K. & Morse, E. (2000). Cross-cultural cognitions and the venture creation decision. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5), 974-993.

Morgan, G. (1997). Images of Organization, Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Motowildo, S., Packard, J. & Manning, M. (1986). Occupational stress: Its causes and consequences for job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (4), 618-629.

Mueller, S. & Thomas, A. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential: a nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. Journal of Busness Venturing, 15, 51-76.

Nahapiet, J. & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23, 242-266.

Nunnaly, J. & Berstein, C. (1997). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Palma, P. (2005). Aprender “para” o empreendedorismo. Franchising & New Business, nº 13, Ago/ Set.

Palma, P. & Cunha, M. P. (2006). New challenges in entrepreneurship: Introduction to the special issue. Comportamento Organizacional e Gestão, 12 (1), 3-7.

Peterson, R. (1985). Raising risk-takers. Metropolitan Toronto Business Journal, 75 (7), 30-34.

Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44-55.

Peterson, S. & Luthans F. (2002). Does the manager Preliminary research evidence of a positive impact. Proceedings of the 47th Midwest Academy of Management. Indianapolis, IN.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2003). Positive Organizational Studies: Lessons from Positive Psychology. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton, & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline, 14-28. San Francisco: Berrett-Koeller.

Rauch, A. & Frese, M. (2000). Psychological Approachs to Entrepreneural Success: A General Model and An Overview of Findings. In C. Cooper and I. Robertson, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 15, 101-141.

Reynolds, P. (1999). Creative destruction: Source or symptom of economic growth? In Z. Acs, B. Carlsson and C. Karlsson. Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Macroeconomy, Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rousseau, D. (1997). Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 515-546.

Scheier, M. & Carver, C. (1985). Optimism, coping and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.

Scherer, R., Brodzinski, J., Wiebe, F. (1990). Entrepreneur career selection and gender: A socialization approach. Journal of Small Business Management, 28 (2), 37-44.

Schneider, B. (1985). Organizational Behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 573-611.

Schneider, S. (2001). In search of realistic optimism. American Psychologist, 56, pp. 250-263.

Schoonhoven, C., Eisenhardt, K. & Lyman, K. (1990). Speeding products to market: waiting time to first product introduction in new firms. Administrative science Quarterly, 35 (1), 177-207.

Schumpeter, J. (1961). The Theory of Economic Development: An inquiry into Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle. New York: Oxford University Press.

Seligman, M. (1998). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books.

Sexton, D. & Landström, H. (2000). The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship, pp. 45-63. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Shane, S & Cable, D (2001). Social relationships and the financing of new ventures. Working Paper: University of Maryland, MD, USA.

Singh, S.(1988). Personality characteristics, work values and live styles of fast and slow progressing small-scale industrial entrepreneurs. Journal of Social Psychology, 129 (6), 801-805.

Singh, J., Tucker, D. & House, R. (1986). Organizational Legitimacy and the Liability of Newness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 171-193.

Snyder, C. (1994). The Psychology of Hope: You Can Get There from Here. New York: Free Press.

Snyder, C., Sympson, S., Ybasco, F., Borders, T., Babyak, M., & Higgins, R. (1996). Development and validation of the state hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.

Spilling, O. R. (2001). On the dynamics of growth firms: Is a growth firm really a growth firm? Paper presented at 31st European Small Business Seminar, in Dublin.

Stajkovic, A. & Luthans, F. (1997). A meta-analysis of the effects of organizational behavior modification on task performance, 1975-95. Academy of Management journal, 40, 1122-1149.

Stajkovic, A. & Luthans, F. (1998). Social cognitive theory and self-efficacy: Going beyond traditional motivational and behavioral approaches. Organizational Dynamics, 26, 62-74.

Stinchcombe, A. (1965). Organizations and Social Structure. In J. March (Ed.). Handbook of Organizations, pp. 153-193. Chicago: Rand-McNally.

Thorne, J. & Ball, J. (1981). Entrepreneurs and their companies. In K. Vesper, Ed., Fronteirs of entrepreneurship Research: The Proceedings of the Babson Conference on entrepreneurship Research. Wellesley, MA: Babson College, pp. 65-83.

Utsch A., Rauch, A., Rothfuss, R. & Frese, M. (1999). Who becomes a small scale entrepreneur in a post-socialist environment: On the differences between entrepreneurs and managers in East Germany. Journal of Small Business Management, 37 (3), 31–41.

Weick, K. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizing, 2nd Ed. New York: Random House.

Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. In J. Katz & R. Brockhaus, Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, vol. 3, pp. 119-138. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Weiss, A. (1926). A set of postulates for social psychology. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 21 (2), 203-211.

Welsch, H. & Young, E. (1982). The information source selection decision: The role of entrepreneural personality characteristics. Journal of Small Business Management, 20, 49-57.

Winter, S. (1984). Schumpeterian competition in alternative technological regimes. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 5, 287-320.

Zhao, H. & Seibert, S. (2006). The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Entrepreneurial Status: A Meta-Analytical Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (2), 259-271.



1 Para a realização deste artigo a primeira autora beneficiou de um apoio concedido pela Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia do Ministério da Ciência e do Ensino Superior, através de uma bolsa com a referência SFRH/BD/18115/2004. O segundo autor agradece o apoio concedido pelo Instituto Nova Fórum.


A correspondência relativa a este artigo deverá ser enviada para:

Patícia Jardim da Palma,

ISPA, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34,

1149-041 Lisboa.